Thursday, March 19, 2020

Life and Travels of Ibn Battuta, World Explorer and Writer

Life and Travels of Ibn Battuta, World Explorer and Writer Ibn Battuta (1304–1368) was a scholar, theologian, adventurer, and traveler who, like Marco Polo fifty years earlier, wandered the world and wrote about it. Battuta sailed, rode camels and horses, and walked his way to 44 different modern countries, traveling an estimated 75,000 miles during a 29 year period. He journeyed from North Africa to the Middle East and Western Asia, Africa, India and Southeast Asia. Fast Facts: Ibn Battuta Name: Ibn BattutaKnown For: His travel writing, which described the 75,000-mile journey he took during his rilha.Born: February 24, 1304, Tangier, MoroccoDied: 1368 in Morocco  Education: Schooled in the Maliki tradition of Islamic lawPublished Works: A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling or The Travels (1368 Early Years Ibn Battuta (sometimes spelled Batuta, Batouta, or Battutah) was born in Tangier, Morocco on February 24, 1304. He was from a fairly well-to-do family of Islamic legal scholars descended from Berbers, an ethnic group indigenous to Morocco. A Sunni Muslim trained in the Maliki tradition of Islamic law, Ibn Battuta left his home at the age of 22 to begin his rihla, or voyage. Rihla is one of four forms of travel encouraged by Islam, the best known of which is Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina. The term rihla refers to both the travel and the genre of literature that describes the journey. The purpose of rihla is to enlighten and entertain readers with detailed descriptions of pious institutions, public monuments and religious personalities of Islam. Ibn Battutas travelogue was written after he returned, and in it he stretched the conventions of the genre, including autobiography as well as some fictional elements from the adjaib or marvels traditions of Islamic literature.   The first seven years of Ibn Battutas Travels took him to Alexandria, Mecca, Medina, and Kilwa Kiswani.   Wikipedia Users Setting Off Ibn Battutas journey began from Tangier on June 14, 1325. Originally intending to make a pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina, by the time he reached Alexandria in Egypt, where the lighthouse was still standing, he found himself entranced by the people and cultures of Islam.   He headed for Iraq, Western Persia, then Yemen and the Swahili coast of East Africa. By 1332 he reached Syria and Asia Minor, crossed the Black Sea and reached the territory of the Golden Horde. He visited the steppe region along the Silk Road and arrived at the oasis of Khwarizm in western central Asia.   Then he traveled through Transoxania and Afghanistan, arriving in the Indus Valley by 1335. He stayed in Delhi until 1342 and then visited Sumatra and (perhaps- the record is unclear) China before heading home. His return trip took him back through Sumatra, the Persian Gulf, Baghdad, Syria, Egypt, and Tunis. He reached Damascus in 1348, just in time for the arrival of the plague, and returned home to Tangier safe and sound in 1349. Afterwards, he made minor excursions to Granada and the Sahara, as well as to the West African kingdom of Mali. A Few Adventures Ibn Battuta was mostly interested in people. He met and talked with pearl divers and camel drivers and brigands. His traveling companions were pilgrims, merchants, and ambassadors. He visited countless courts. Ibn Battuta lived on donations from his patrons, mostly elite members of Muslim society he met along the way. But he was not just a traveler- he was an active participant, often employed as a judge (qadi), administrator, and/or ambassador during his stops. Battuta took a number of well-placed wives, generally daughters and sisters of the sultans, none of whom are named in the text.   Ibn Battuta is thought to have reached Asia.   Wikimedia Users Visiting Royalty Battuta met countless royals and elites. He was in Cairo during the reign of the Mamluk Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad ibn Qalawun. He visited Shiraz when it was an intellectual haven for Iranians fleeing the Mongol invasion. He stayed in the Armenian capital of Staryj Krym with his host, the governor Tuluktumur. He detoured to Constantinople to visit Andronicus III in the company of the Byzantine emperor Ozbek Khans daughter. He visited the Yuan emperor in China, and he visited Mansa Musa (r. 1307–1337) in West Africa.   He spent eight years in India as a qadi in the court of Muhammad Tughluq, the Sultan of Delhi. In 1341, Tughluq appointed him to lead a diplomatic mission to the Mongol emperor of China. The expedition was shipwrecked off the coast of India leaving him with neither employment nor resources, so he traveled around southern India, Ceylon and the Maldive islands, where he served as qadi under the local Muslim government. History of the Literary Rilha In 1536, after Ibn Battuta returned home,  the Marinid ruler of Morocco Sultan Abu Ina commissioned a young literary scholar of Andalusian origins named Ibn Juzayy (or Ibn Djuzzayy) to record Ibn Battutas experiences and observations. Over the next two years together, the men wove what would become the Book of Travels, based primarily on Ibn Battutas memories, but also interweaving descriptions from earlier writers.   The manuscript was circulated around different Islamic countries, but not much cited by Muslim scholars. It eventually came to the attention of the west by way of two adventurers of the 18th and 19th centuries, Ulrich Jasper Seetzen (1767–1811) and Johan Ludwig Burckhardt (1784–1817). They had separately purchased abridged copies during their travels throughout the Mideast. The first English language translation of those copies was published in 1829 by Samuel Lee. Five manuscripts were found by the French when they conquered Algeria in 1830. The most complete copy recovered in Algiers was made in 1776, but the oldest fragment was dated 1356. That fragment had the title Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Traveling, and is believed to have been a very early copy indeed if not an original fragment.   The complete text of the travels, with  parallel Arabic and a French translation, first appeared in four volumes between 1853–1858 by Dufrà ©mery and Sanguinetti. The full text was translated first into English by Hamilton A.R. Gibb in 1929. Several subsequent translations are available today.   Criticism of the Travelogue Ibn Battuta recounted tales of his travels throughout his voyage and when he returned home, but it was not until his association with Ibn Jazayy that the stories were committed to formal writing. Battuta took notes during the journey but admitted that he lost some of them along the way. He was accused of lying by some contemporaries, though the veracity of those claims is widely disputed. Modern critics have noted several textual discrepancies which hint at substantial borrowing from older tales.   Much of the criticism of Battutas writing is aimed at the sometimes confusing chronology and plausibility of certain parts of the itinerary. Some critics suggest he may have never reached mainland China, but did get as far as Vietnam and Cambodia. Parts of the story were borrowed from earlier writers, some attributed, others not, such as Ibn Jubary and Abu al-Baqa Khalid al-Balawi. Those borrowed parts include descriptions of Alexandria, Cairo, Medina, and Mecca. Ibn Battuta and Ibn Juzayy acknowledge Ibn Jubayr in the descriptions of Aleppo and Damascus.   He also relied on original sources, relating historical events told to him in the courts of the world, such as the capture of Delhi and the devastations of Genghis Khan. Death and Legacy After his collaboration with Ibn Jazayy ended, Ibn Batuta retired to a judicial post in a small Moroccan provincial town, where he died in 1368. Ibn Battuta has been called the greatest of all travel writers, having traveled farther than Marco Polo. In his work, he provided priceless glimpses of the various people, courts and religious monuments around the world. His travelogue has been the source of countless research projects and historical investigations. Even if some of the stories were borrowed, and some of the tales a bit too marvelous to be believed, Ibn Battutas rilha remains an enlightening and influential work of travel literature to this day. Sources Battuta, Ibn, Ibn Juzayy, and Hamilton A.R. Gibb. Ibn Battuta, Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354. London: Broadway House, 1929. Print.Berman, Nina. Questions of Context: Ibn Battuta and E. W. Bovill on Africa. Research in African Literatures 34.2 (2003): 199-205. Print.Gulati, G. D. Ibn Battuta in Transoxiana. Proceedings of the Indian History Congress 58 (1997): 772-78. Print.Lee, Samuel. The Travels of Ibn Batuta Translated from the Abridged Arabic Manuscript Copies. London: Oriental Translation Committee, 1829. Print.Morgan, D. O. Battuta and the Mongols. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 11.1 (2001): 1-11. Print.Norris, Harry. Ibn Battuta on Muslims and Christians in the Crimean Peninsula. Iran the Caucasus 8.1 (2004): 7-14. Print.Waines, David. The Odyssey of Ibn Battuta: Uncommon Tales of a Medieval Adventurer. London: I.B. Tauris Cp, Ltd, 2010. Print.Zimonyi, Istvn. Ibn Battuta on the First Wife of Ãâ€"zbek Khan. Central Asiatic Journal 49.2 (2005): 303-09. Print.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Details of James Deans Death in a Car Accident

Details of James Dean's Death in a Car Accident In September 1955, actor James Dean was driving his brand-new Porsche 550 Spyder to an auto rally in Salinas, California, when he was involved in a head-on collision with a 1950 Ford Tudor. James Dean, only 24 years old, died in the crash. Although already famous for his role in East of Eden, his death and the release of Rebel Without a Cause caused James Dean to soar to cult status. James Dean, forever frozen as the talented, misunderstood, rebellious youth remains the symbol of teenage angst. Who Was James Dean? John Kobal Foundation/Contributor/Getty Images James Dean had appeared in a number of television shows before getting his big break in 1954 when he was chosen to play Cal Trask, the leading male role in the film East of Eden (1955). This was the only one of Deans films released before his death. Quickly following East of Eden, James Dean was signed to play Jim Stark in Rebel Without a Cause (1955), the film for which Dean is best remembered. Immediately following the filming for Rebel Without a Cause, Dean played the lead role in Giant (1956). Both of these films were released after Deans death. James Dean Raced Cars As Deans movie career began to take off, James Dean also started to race cars. In March 1955 Dean raced in the Palm Springs Road Races, and in May of that year he raced in the Minter Field Bakersfield race and the Santa Barbara Road Races. James Dean liked to go fast. In September 1955 Dean replaced his white Porsche 356 Super Speedster with a new, silver Porsche 550 Spyder. Bettmann/Contributor/Getty Images Dean had the car specialized by having the number 130 painted on both the front and back. Also painted on the back of the car was Little Bastard, Deans nickname given to him by friend Bill Hickman, who was Deans dialogue coach for Giant. The Accident On September 30, 1955, James Dean was driving his new Porsche 550 Spyder to an auto rally in Salinas, California, when the fatal accident occurred. Originally planning to tow the Porsche to the rally, Dean changed his mind at the last minute and decided to drive the Porsche instead. Dean and Rolf Wuetherich, Deans mechanic, rode in the Porsche. Following were photographer Sanford Roth and Bill Hickman, driving a Ford station wagon that had a trailer for the Spyder attached. En route to Salinas, Dean was pulled over by police officers near Bakersfield for speeding around 3:30 p.m. After being stopped, Dean and Wuetherich continued on their way. Two hours later, around 5:30 p.m., they were driving westbound on Highway 466 (now called State Route 46), when a 1950 Ford Tudor pulled out in front of them. 23-year-old Donald Turnupseed, the driver of the Ford Tudor, had been traveling east on Highway 466 and was attempting to make a left turn onto Highway 41. Unfortunately, Turnupseed had already started to make his turn before he saw the Porsche traveling quickly toward him. Without time to turn, the two cars smashed nearly head-on. The injuries among the three involved in the crash varied greatly. Turnupseed only received minor injuries from the accident. Rolf Wuetherich, the passenger in the Porsche, was lucky to be thrown from the Porsche. Although he suffered serious head injuries and a broken leg, he survived the crash. Dean, however, was killed in the accident. Dean was just 24 years old at the time of the wreck. Posthumous Academy Awards To this day, James Dean is the only person to receive two Academy Award nominations posthumously. In 1956, he was nominated posthumously for Best Leading Actor for his role in East of Eden. This was a historic first. In 1957, Dean was again posthumously nominated for Best Leading Actor, this time for his role in Giant. What Happened to Deans Smashed Car? Many Dean fans wonder what happened to the smashed Porsche. After the accident, the crumpled car was toured around the United States as part of a driver safety presentation. However, en route between two stops, the car disappeared. In 2005, Volo Auto Museum in Volo, Illinois, offered $1 million to anyone who currently had the car. So far, the car has not resurfaced.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Individualized Education Program Research Proposal

Individualized Education Program - Research Proposal Example During my classroom observation, I did not let Mr. John know that I am observing him. During classes he is hard headed and very talkative. During their English lesson, the teacher had given them 15 minutes to read a short story. After reading the story, the teacher asked the students to answer the study questions found at the end of the story. His classmates answered the question on their own, but Mr. John did not begin answering the question until he was guided by the teacher. During the oral participation, he was called to two questions: one which the answer is very obvious, while the other needs reasoning. He was able to answer the easy question, but simply scratch his head on the second question. During their math lesson, he was asked to solve a worded problem. He was not able to locate the given figures that are required to solve the problem. When the teacher had provided him the given figure and the required operation to solve the problem, he then understand the process and had answered the problem correctly. Based on that observation, Mr. John found it hard to identify key ideas that are implied in what he is reading. During their Science lesson, their topic was all about food chain. He was asked by his teacher to draw the diagram of the food chain on the board. He then draw the diagram immediately and I was amazed by his artistic skills. When asked of what subjects he hate, he replied â€Å"I hate math problems, and I also hate reading stories because it is boring.†... The reason why his mother tried to abort him is because she is not ready to get pregnant at first. Both of his parents were fresh graduate at that moment and have no job at all, but the abortion failed. All attention was given to him when he was born until he grew up. He was raised as a spoiled child, provided with everything he wants. They had just discovered his personality problem when he first went to school, and he always receive lower grade until this time. The table below shows Mr. John's attitude at home based on the interview I conducted with his parents. At Home Fought with his younger brother during playtime. He don't want to be interrupted in what he is doing. Most of his time is consumed on watching his favorite cartoon shows. He easily get bored, he hates going to church and attending social parties with his parents. He often fights with his neighbor playmates because he doesn't want to be under shadowed. He gets bored scanning his notes and doing assignments. Most of the time he is guided by her mother in doing home works. He has poor appetite on healthy foods such as vegetables. 9. Work sample analysis: List at least six general samples that you would need to support your summary and recommendations 10. Classroom observations: List at least four general ideas of what you would 'see' that would support your summary and recommendations During my classroom observation, I did not let Mr. John know that I am observing him. During classes he is hard headed and very talkative. During their English lesson, the teacher had given them 15 minutes to read a short story. After reading the story, the teacher asked the students to answer the study questions found at the end of the story. His classmates answered the question on their

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Exercising Facilities at the Workplace Coursework

Exercising Facilities at the Workplace - Coursework Example This is more than a third of the population and excludes children and teens. The report further states that in 2008 alone, $147 billion was spent on obesity-related health complications and that obese people were spending at least $1400 more on medication than their normal counterparts. As highlighted by the above statistics, many Americans are not exercising as they should. They are leading unhealthy lives and exposing themselves to obesity-related health risks such as cancer, heart diseases, and type 2 diabetes. I formulated this research to investigate the advantages of setting up exercise facilities at workplaces and also to come up with ways of encouraging people to regularly visit them. This will reduce the obesity rate in the country and the health risks associated with it. I recently witnessed two colleagues discussing a move by their company management to set up a physical fitness facility at the company’s premises to encourage workers to live healthy lifestyles. I was struck most by the agility and enthusiasm that the two exuberated as they discussed the matter. Prior to this incident, I had never envisioned a gym within a working premise. Fitness sections should be constructed in every workplace as a way to encourage people to exercise regularly. The management will, therefore, be forced to allow workers to exercise during working days since most of them will be unwilling to show up at work during the weekends. However, the sessions will only be possible during off-peak hours such as lunch breaks and in the evenings when everyone is breaking for home.

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Malaysias Management of Resources

Malaysias Management of Resources 1.0 INTRODUCTION Economies can be defined as, thrifty management of resources, such as land, labour, capital and enterprenuership learned to practice economy in making out the household budget. In factors of production there are commodities or services used to produce goods and services. And also explores how people and society try to use resources available , which have many different uses, in order to produce different goods and distribute among people. According to economist Lionel Robbins who defined economics as The science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. The primary factors facilitate production but neither become part of the product as raw materials. One of the factor of production is mainly called Land includes not only the site of production but natural resources above or below the soil. What is scarcity? Scarcity is a things that has some problems in economic having because of humans nature unlimited needs and wants. Humans were always wants more and more thats unlimited goals. This world has a limited resources which can be used. What will happened when all of the four factor of production is limited? Factor of productions is defined as the input that used in the production of goods or services in the attempt to make an economic profit and also production can be defined as the resources that required to generaton of goods and services. This resources are generally classifeid into four major groups which are land, labour, capital and enterprenuership. So what is land? One of the factor of production is mainly called land, includes not only the site of production but natural resources above or below the soil. Land is a natural resource that whose supply is generation by generation fixed. Land contains natural resources that a production of good and also a capital goods. Example of the natural resources in land is petroleum, coal, diamond, timber, gold and many more. If this land is became limited there are huge problem will this world faced, some of the problem is natural resources cannot be extracted or maybe become limited. Among this there a another factor of production is called capital, what is capital? Is that capital is important to our economy? Capital is a money. Capital played main role in this factor of production because the capital is helped we to buy the raw materials, machines, equipment, tools and many more. The next factor of production is labour. What is the meaning of labour? Labour is means the people is working for a wages. The size of a labour force can be determined by population of adult in a country. Labour consists of the both physical and mental abilities of the workers to work in a company or in a working place to get a wages. Lets say the labour has been limited, what will happened? They cannot produce goods and sevices, example like, if one companys labour is limited the production of product will stopped and will effect the company, because of this the economy will be effect. The last things in factor of production is entrepeurnership is a defined as a businessman, is a individual who uses all the resources effectively to run production. He should be risk taker and wiling to accept new challengers or wiling to accept lost or profits on their business. 1.2 WHAT IS SCARCITY? In other word for scarcity is means not enough resources. The main cause this scarcity is happened because of unlimited needs and wants of human. For an example just ask with the people out there would you like more luxury life most of them will answered Yes. People were looking foe more money for buy more goods and services. This problem not only carried by poor people its also to most wealthy people were include in this problem. In any time this world can be limited amount of goods and services such as for land when we compared Malaysia and Singapore, Malaysia has big land then Singapore, so the land is so limited to Singapore then Malaysia. In Singapore the singaporeans can built their own property like houses and more this is called scarcity. The example of capital became limited is to run one company he must have capital for the production if its limited there are dont have any company industry. Limitation of third factor of production is labour, for example if the labour became limited the are no one to work at companies, and the companies will not run any production. Lastly about enterprenuer, lets take that the enterprenuer is became limited what wiil happened, there are no new production of product, the procduction not run as planned and more. To outcome these factor of production problem, must tasks on the evidence of scarcity, the evidence of plenty and research why this problems were created. What is really the opportunity cost means? Opportunity cost is a cost of next best alternatives from all. CONCLUSION As a conclude, every country has it own resource, we must balanced the factor of production and if one of this factor of production land, capital, labour or enterprenuership is limited is must cause the growth of economic. If dont have land they cant built any company, if capital became limited we cant pay wages to labour, if labour became limited no workers in companies if enterprenuer no new product, so must balanced and protect our factor of production. QUESTION 2 Malaysia, a mixed economy attempts to combine the advantages of Free Enterprise System and the Central Command System. The price mechanism is allowed to operate but in some cases the price mechanism fails or works against public interest. Identify the ways by which the State can intervene to correct the defects. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Production, distribution, and consumption of good and service were a branches of economics in science. What is ecomomy system? Economy system is a planned organization and structure of production. Allocate of economic inputs, distribute of economic outputs and consumption of goods and services in an economy. Economy system are separated into three major economy thats named planned economy, mixed economy and lastly free market economy. There are three different types of organization economy plan that also very tight and some confortable and some of economy plan is very freedom. As I told the three economy system, this is first economy system called planned or command economy, this system is fully controlled by the goverment. There are no arguement or such things in that country because the country is very strict and on the mission and vision to achieve so when the country planned system the mission and vision will achieve more quickly. Free Market Economy is an system based on power of division of labour in which the prices of the goods and services are determined in a free prices system set by supply and demand and the decision taken by individual household and firms and with no goverment intervention. The price also as how much they produce. Mixed ecomony were controlled by partly goverment and partly through the market. 1.2 CONTENT In our Malaysia country is the mixed economic system. Mixed economy reflects the characteristics of both capitalism and socialism. In this mixed economy system there are all real world economies are mixture of the two system. In mixed economy goverment will intervention like some relative prises because the goods and inputs by taxing or subsiding them or by direct price controls. Most mixed economies also can be described as market economies with strong regulatory oversight, in addition to having a variety of government sponsored aspects. Government also must have the rights to control the price of products and services in our Malaysia country. Example of Malaysian government control item are like rice, oil, sugar, petrol, flour and more. SIRIM is a not goverment company but the goverment intervention because they have to know is th product is really good. Mixed economies as an economic ideal are supported by people of various political persuasions. Another example of Malaysian gover ment intervention in the market by pose tax on goods, for example goverment taxed on cigarretes, petrol, alcohol drinks and more. Conclusion As conclusion, Malaysian economic system is mixed economic system. Mixed economy reflects the characteristics of both capitalism and socialism. Malaysian government intervene in the economic in many ways such imposed tax og good, control the price of the product, make sure the price of the product is not high and many more.

Friday, January 17, 2020

The Role of Performance Measurement in Business Process Re-Engineering

The purpose of this business study is to test the performance measurement system (PMS) and its interaction with development implementing standard deviation (SD). PMS is the essential of business process engineering (BPR) that is a significant theory in analyzing the interaction between the correlation of PMS, empowerment, integration, and strategic alignment. The object is to understand the unities between companies that undergo strategic modification to progress effectiveness and thrive efficiently.The testing of the hypothesis consists of two companies from the Bahrain Economy a major sector in manufacturing and finance as well as other companies within the sector. â€Å"The total of returned responds were 301 from 19 manufacturing and 30 financial companies. The companies deviate in age, number of employees, profits, range of products, or services. The individual respondents range from managerial position, experience, and length of employment† (Kuwaiti & Kay, 2013, para. 7, p. 4). The BPR emphasize on restructuring and reevaluating a business.The research questions:How is the performance of PMS a criterion to the principles of change? How is the performance of empowerment, integration, and strategic alignment correlation tested in determining the effective in change? The hypothesis of the study:H1: The significant and correlation PMS is as a criterion for the effective formation and operation of BPR and the PMS can act as a resource to change in empowerment, integration, and strategic alignment.The hypothesis testing included congruence PMS is the responding variable,  and the four explanatory variables. The statistical formula used to determine the score range is the standard deviation (SD).For example, â€Å"for empowerment the results range from a maximum of 40 (highly empowered) to a minimum of 10 (least empowered) the mean is 29.8 with a SD of 5.75 and a maximum possible score is (14*5) 70† (Kuwaiti & Kay, 2013, para. 5, p. 6). The PMS i nteraction with two of the explanatory variables is weak when measuring the range. Therefore, the hypothesis supports the relationship with strategic alignment and a modest support for empowerment.The main findings of the study:A well-defined PMS process will improve the changes within a business because PMS emphasis on premeditated purposes before initiating on different levels of business development.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

“Columbine High School/Littleton, Co.” Analytical Essay

Ryan Douvlos English 050 Analytical Essay Imaginative writing is an art that expresses ideas and thoughts in an imaginative way. This art involves universal laws of human nature, and both time and place. Without connecting the reader through these principles, the author’s work is somewhat meaningless. In order for the author to gain something through his/her work, the author must be able to manipulate the perceptions of the reader. This can be done by successfully incorporating the five elements of craft found in literature. These elements function to focus the reader towards a specific end, and the five elements include: image, voice, character, setting and story. It is imperative that the author utilizes these elements to create a†¦show more content†¦The last four lines of the poem also follow the same principles as the perspective in lines 10-13, and key words which make this perspective first person point of view are the use of the words â€Å"us† and â€Å"our.† Moving to a less sophistic ated and more recognizable element of writing, the craft of character will be discussed. There is one single character presented in this poem, and that is the woman in the photograph who is leaning against the beam. She is portrayed directly; mainly through the image of the photograph the reader is given. The woman is also represented through action and thoughts as well. In this poem, the reader is told that the woman’s grief is heavy, and that her sorrow is pouring out into the wood. This connection of the woman’s thoughts to the wood signifies the elements of action and thoughts. Although the woman is the only single character in the poem, she takes the role of a flat character in this piece, in the sense that she represents a single idea. The idea the woman possesses in this piece is that of sorrow. The narrator of the story is the protagonist in this poem. The narrator is not a part of the tragic even that occurred in this poem, but rather a spectator whose goal in this poem is to assess and make sense of the situation. First the narrator glances at the photograph, and then deeply focuses